Geopolitics is a study of political phenomena from geographic aspects. Geopolitics is seen as a science that provides an objective insight into the position of society as a nation that lives side by side and interacts with other countries in the world. It is because every change that occurs in the life of a nation can affect the lives of other nations in the region both directly and indirectly. Therefore, each nation must be able to understand the geopolitical dynamics of the region that occur as a capital of both regional and global geopolitical views to create policies that can achieve optimal benefits for the interests of the nation (Wijaya, 2013).
In the geopolitical thinking, the creation of interaction between space and humans that gave birth to space awareness, both directly and indirectly related to the interests of security and welfare for humans. In the context of the modern state, the concept of spatial awareness is realized by the existence of claims of sovereignty, which are bounded by national boundaries (boundary) with a set of laws and apparatus to ensure security and sovereignty. Today’s contemporary geopolitics has been characterized by competition and cooperation between nations in several fields in human life, namely politics, economics, and the military. In this case, the maritime domain has become one of the means of competition as well as international cooperation because many countries emphasize maritime security issues as part of national interests, including the issue of energy security (Hikam, 2014).
Related to this, the existence of energy resources has become a vital thing for human life. In 2012, energy demand in Indonesia reached 44 percent and continues to increase every year. The imbalance between energy demand and supply driven by the rapid rate of population growth and the rapid development and industrialization in Indonesia has resulted in the depletion of large amounts of energy reserves. This has caused the position of Indonesia’s energy security to decline in recent years. In this regard, Indonesia’s energy security, both in terms of availability of energy sources, affordability of energy supply, and the continued development of new renewable energy, ranked 69th out of 129 countries in 2014. Especially with the proportion of petroleum that has become the main source of energy currently reaches 40% of total world energy demand but reserves continue to decrease. The increase in production which only reached 0.9% as well as the global oil reserves which are decreasing make each country in the world vulnerable to the risk of a world energy crisis, including Indonesia (Kemenperin, 2016).
Based on its geographical location, Indonesia has a strategic position as an economic traffic lane. This condition certainly does not only bring positive impacts but also presents certain challenges for energy security which are very vulnerable to the harmful impacts of climate change. As an island nation, the Government of Indonesia must be able to ensure that the entire population has access to reliable energy sources. But unfortunately, the Indonesian government is still unable to provide this. In 2013, Indonesia’s energy supply reached 1.61 billion barrels of oil equivalent, with most of the energy supplied by fossil fuels, specifically 46.08 percent of oil, 30.9 percent of coal, and 18.26 percent of natural gas. This means that less than five percent of energy supply comes from renewable sources (Cheney, 2018).